The Bridge21 learning model is based on a teaching methodology that equips students with the skills they will need to live, work and learn in the challenging world of the 21st century. It has been developed since 2007 and validated by research conducted at the Centre for Research in IT in Education. Some of our published work is available here:

The Model

  1. Sullivan K., Bray A., Tangney B., (in press), Developing twenty-first-century skills in out-of-school education: The Bridge21 Transition Year programme, Technology, Pedagogy and Education.
  2. Byrne, J. R., Kearney, S., & Sullivan, K. (2019). Technology-Mediated Collaborative Learning: The Bridge21 Activity Model in Theory and Practice. In Didactics of Smart Pedagogy (pp. 309-330). Springer, Cham.
  3. Lawlor J., Conneely C., Oldham E., Marshall K., Tangney B., Bridge21: Teamwork, Technology and Learning – A pragmatic model for effective 21C Team-based Learning, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 2018, org/10.1080/1475939X.2017.1405066
  4. Lawlor J., Marshall K., Tangney B., Bridge21 – Exploring the potential to foster intrinsic student motivation through a team-based, technology mediated learning model, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 2015, 1-20
  5. Lawlor J., Conneely C., Tangney B., Towards a pragmatic model for group-based, technology-mediated, project-oriented learning – an overview of the B2C model,  Proceedings of the 2010 TechEduca Conference, Athens, May, Lytras, M.D.; Ordonez De Pablos, P.; Avison, D.; Sipior, J.; Jin, Q.; Leal, W. Uden, L.; Thomas, M.; Cervai, S.; Horner, D.G. (Eds.)  2010, pp 602-609.
  6. Tangney B., Bray A., Oldham E., Realistic Mathematics Education, Mobile Technology & The Bridge21 Model For 21st Century Learning – A Perfect Storm, in Mobile Learning and Mathematics: Foundations, Design, and Case Studies, Crompton H.,  & Traxler J., (Eds) Routledge, 2015, pp 96-105.
  7. Bridge21, Activity Handbook for Teachers. 2013, Trinity College Dublin: Dublin. p. 47.

 Use in Schools

  1. Girvan C., Conneely,  Tangney B.,  Extending experiential learning in teacher professional development.  Teaching and Teacher Education 58:129-139 · August 2016.  DOI: 10.1016/j.tate.2016.04.009
  2. Conneely, C., Girvan, C., Lawlor, J., Tangney, B.,  An Exploratory Case Study into the Adaption of the Bridge21 Model for 21st Century Learning in Irish Classrooms, in editor(s)  Butler, D., Marshall, K., Leahy, M.,  Shaping our Future: How the lessons of the past can shape educational transformation, Dublin, Liffey Press.  2015, pp 348-381.
  3. Johnston, Conneely C., Murchan D., Tangney B., Enacting Key Skills-based Curricula in Secondary Education: Lessons from a Technology-mediated, Group-based Learning Initiative, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 2015,  vol 24, no 4, 423-442.
  4. Conneely, C., Murchan, D., Tangney, B. & Johnston, K, 21 Century Learning –Teachers’ and Students’ Experiences and Views of the Bridge21 Approach within Mainstream Education, Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, March, AACE., New Orleans, USA, 2013, pp5125 – 5132

Computer Programming & CS CPD

  1. Lawlor G., Byrne P.,  Tangney B., “CodePlus”- Measuring short term-efficacy in a non-formal all-female outreach CS programme”, (in press) ACM Transactions on Education.

  2. Byrne, J. R., O’Sullivan, K., & Sullivan, K. (2016). An IoT and Wearable Technology Hackathon for Promoting Careers in Computer Science. IEEE Transactions on Education, (60), 1, pp 50-58.
  3. Tangney, B., Oldham, E., Conneely, C.,  Barrett, E., Lawlor, J., Pedagogy and processes for a computer engineering outreach workshop – the B2C model, IEEE Transactions in Education, 2010, vol 53 no 1, pp53-60.
  4. Byrne, J. R., Fisher, L. & Tangney, B. Empowering Teachers to Teach Computer Science – A social constructivist approach using the Bridge21 Model for CS CPD. 45th Annual Conference Frontiers in Education (FIE), 21 – 24 October 2015 El Paso, USA, 9pp.
  5. Sullivan, K., Byrne, J. R., Bresnihan, N., O’Sullivan, K. & Tangney, T. CodePlus – Designing an After School Computing Programme for Girls. 45th Annual Conference Frontiers in Education (FIE), 21 – 24 October 2015 El Paso, USA, 5pp.
  6. Fisher, L., Byrne, J. R. & Tangney, B. (2015) Using an Ethnographic Approach to Educational Evaluation to Understand  Computer Science Teacher Continuing Professional Development Needs. 37th Oxford Conference on Ethnography and Education (EEO), September 2015, Oxford, UK, pp 1- 25
  7. Lorraine Fisher, Jake Rowan Byrne and Brendan Tangney, “Exploring Teacher Reactions towards a 21St Century Teaching and Learning Approach to Continuing Professional Development Programme in Computer Science”, 7th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU), Lisbon, Portugal, 2015, pp 22-31.
  8. Byrne, J. R., Fisher, L. & Tangney, B. A 21st Century Teaching and Learning Approach to Computer Science Education: Teacher Reactions, In S. Zvacek, M. T. Restivo, J. Uhomoibhi & M. Helfert (Eds.), Computer Supported Education (Vol. 583, pp. 523-540): 2015. Springer International Publishing.
  9. Byrne, J. R., Fisher, L. & Tangney, B. Computer Science Teacher reactions towards Raspberry Pi Continuing Professional Development (CPD) workshops using the Bridge21 Model , 10th International Conference on Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 22-24 July 2015 Cambridge, UK, pp. 267-272.


  1. Bray A., Byrne J.R., & Tangney B., STEM CPD For 21st Century Teaching & Learning – The Bridge21 Approach, in editor(s) Leite, L., Oldham, E., Afonso, A.S., Viseu, F., Dourado, L. & Martinho, M.H., Science and mathematics education for 21st century citizens: challenges and ways forwards, New York, Nova Science Publishers, 2020.

  2. Bray A., Tangney B., “Enhancing Student Engagement through the Affordances of Mobile Technology: A 21st Century Learning Perspective on Realistic Mathematics Education“, Mathematics Education Research Journal. 1 – 25 DOI 10.1007/s13394-015-0158-7

  3. Bray, A,. Oldham, E. & Tangney, B.  Technology-Mediated Realistic Mathematics Education And The Bridge21 Model: A Teaching Experiment. Proceedings of the 10th   Congress of European Research in Mathematics Education (CERME9). Prague, Checq Republic.   2487 – 2494
  4. Bray, A., & Tangney, B. (2014). Barbie Bungee Jumping, Technology and Contextual Learning of Mathematics. 6th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2014), 3, 206 – 213.
  5. Tangney, B. & Bray, A., Mobile Technology, Maths Education & 21C Learning, Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning. Qatar, October 2013, pp20-27.
  6. Bray, A. Oldham, E. & Tangney, B., The Human Catapult and Other Stories – 11th International Conference on Technology in Maths Teaching,  Italy, July  2013, pp77-83.
  7. Bray, A., & Tangney, B., Mathematics, Technology Interventions and Pedagogy – Seeing the Wood From the Trees, 5th International Conference on Computer Supported Education, Aachen, Germany, May, 2013, pp57-63.


  1. Hannon, C. & O’Sullivan, K. (2016) Going to Scale: The Irish Case. in StJohn, E. & Dalton, R, (Eds).College For Every Student: A Practitioner’s Guide to Building College and Career Readiness. New York, New York: Routledge.
  2. O’Sullivan, K, Mulligan, R, Kuster, M,  Smith, R. & Hannon, C. (2017)A College Focused Mentoring Programme for Students in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Schools: the Impact of Mentoring Relationship and Frequency  on College Going Confidence, Application Efficacy and Aspirations. Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning (In press).

Other Areas

  1. Sharon Kearney, Silvia Gallagher & Brendan Tangney (2020) ETAS: an instrument for measuring attitudes towards learning English with technology, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, DOI: 10.1080/1475939X.2020.1764381

  2. Kibar, P. N., Sullivan, K., & Akkoyunlu, B. (2019). Creatıng infographics based on the Bridge21 model for team-based and technology-mediated learning. Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practice18, 087-111.
  3. O’Donovan, D., McCrea, J., Elena Gallagher, S. and Tangney, B. (2016), Living The Lockout: The Dublin Tenement Experience Participation Design for Locals, Diaspora, and Teenagers through Engagement with one of the Darkest Times in Dublin’s History. Museum, 68: 131–147. doi:10.1111/muse.12130
  4. Wickham C., Girvan C., and Tangney B., Constructionism and microworlds as part of a 21st century learning activity to impact student engagement and confidence in physics, in Constructionism 2016. Sipitakiat A. and Tutiyaphuengprasert N., Editors. 2016, Suksapattana Foundation: Bangkok. p. 34-43.
  5. Lawlor G., & Tangney, B. (2016). Constructivist Learning and Mantle of the Expert Pedagogy – A Case Study of an Authentic Learning Activity, the “Brain Game”, to Develop 21St Century Skills in Context, 8th International Conference on Computer Supported Education, Vol 2, . 265-272.
  6. Sullivan, K., Marshall, K., & Tangney, B. (2015). Learning circles: A collaborative technology-mediated peer teaching workshop. Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practice, 14, 63-83. Retrieved from
  7. Bauer, C., A. Devitt, and B. Tangney, The alignment of CMC language learning methodologies with the Bridge21 model of 21C learning, in Critical CALL – Proceedings of the 2015 EUROCALL Conference, Padova, Italy, F. Helm, et al., Editors. 2015, Padova, Italy. p. 44-50.

Related Dissertations

  1. John Lawlor. “Bridge21 – A Model for Team Based, Technology, Mediated Learning In and Out of School Context”,  D. Thesis, the University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, 2016
  2. Aibhín Bray. “ Collaborative, Contextual, and Technology-Mediated Mathematics Learning Activities: Design Heuristics and Effects on Student Engagement”, D. Thesis,the University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, 2015
  3. Ian Boran, “As Part of a 21st Century Learning Activity, an Investigation into the Effect of Utilising a Synthesized Problem Solving Model in a Microworld Simulation to Develop Problem Solving Skills in Maths Education”, Sc. Dissertation,  the University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, 2017
  4. Mairead Glynn, “An investigation into the use of the Bridge21 model to deliver the new Junior Cycle Science specification”.Sc. Dissertation, the University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, 2017
  5. Tony Knox, “An Investigation into Bray’s Heuristics for Mathematical Learning Activities as Applied to Functions”  Sc. Dissertation,  the University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, 2017
  6. Grace Lawlor Sc. “”Brain Games”- An Authentic Learning Intervention for Exploring 21st Century Skills Development”, M.Sc. Dissertation,  the University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, 2015.
  7. Conor Wickham, “Investigation into the use of microworlds as part of a 21st century learning activity and the impact on student engagement and confidence in physics”, Sc. Dissertation, the University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, 2015.
  8. Claire Conneely, “The Bridge21 model of technology-mediated, team-based 21st century learning in post-primary classrooms in Ireland: Evolution, experiences and evaluation.” Ph.D. thesis.
  9. Kearney, S. (2018) Using the Bridge21 pedagogical model of 21st century teaching and learning to teach new literacies in second-level English education, and the impact on students’ attitudes. Retrieved from Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin: Theses & Dissertations.